Guerilla marketing in the tourism industry using the example
Figure 3: Guerrilla Marketing by Saatchi Saatchi illustration not visible in this excerpt Saatchi Saatchi (New York) placed cardboards around selected areas in order to highlight public restroom shortage in New York. The authors focused mainly on the following approaches: - Guerrilla marketing should be a 360 marketing in terms of time, creativity and energy. Figure 2: Guerrilla Marketing by Giovanni FCB Agency illustration not visible in this excerpt The Brazilian advertising agency Giovanni FCB used guerrilla marketing to promote Disneys new movie Agua Negra (Dark Water) in 2005. Guerrilla Marketing Explained, companies using guerrilla marketing rely on its in-your-face promotions to be spread through viral marketing, or word-of-mouth, thus reaching a broader audience for free. Online promotions or non-traditional advertising methods. Furthermore, high-traffic spots like clubs, pubs or sport events can be used optimally to target a young audience. To eliminate unprofitable fields of activity can therefore be a benefit for small companies because they are able to channel their resources on more potential market segments, in which larger competitors need more time to enter. The purpose of this study is to identify how relevant this approach is to guerrilla entrepreneurs in small organisations, regarding profitability and flexibility in respect of strategy execution.
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In a 2005 Guinness World Record attempt, Snapple promoted its new frozen treats by erecting a 25-foot popsicle in a New York City park. Guerrilla approaches are mostly inexpensive and simple to implement and execute, with a focus on innovative actions to communicate with the audiences. 2.3 Guerrilla Marketing The unprecedented fragmentation in the traditional media challenge organisations to implement the utilisation of unexpected, creative and in-your-face messaging guerrilla marketing tactics to gain high impact at a low-cost level (m). Businesses strategically consider their role in the growing market of competition and therefore are trying to create tactics to achieve substantial advantages, to battle their rivals successfully. It is particular relevant for a small company to apply a differentiated set of promotional methods to diversify itself from competition, but guerrilla marketing is also becoming more adopted by large enterprises.
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2.2 The Term Guerrilla According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica (2005) the term guerrilla, also spelled guerilla, etymologically comes from the Spanish word guerra, which means war. Guerrilla marketing focuses on psychological cognitions about consumer behaviour instead of concentrating on presumptions of customer needs,.g. Guerrilla is the diminutive word for war (implicating small war) and was firstly used to describe the Spanish-Portuguese irregulars, who helped to drive the French from the Iberian Peninsula in the early 19th century. Guerrilla warfare is about using fast and flexible forces, combined with intelligence that is focused on infiltration, manipulation or conviction. Furthermore, the time span of the strategic attack should be as surprising and as fast as possible to reduce the reaction time of the competitor. The best way to improve or hold a position is by constantly attacking the market to protect the organisations market share, product positioning or profitability.
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In the 1980s business strategists like Ries and Trout (1986 as well as Philip Kotler (1980) adopted strategic military theories from books of Sun Tzu, The Art of War (translated 1910 or Carl von Clausewitzs (1832) book. In the 1970s, in order to promote his new film Frenzy, Alfred Hitchcock floated a dummy of himself down Londons Thames River. Literature Review.1 Marketing Warfare Strategy.2 The Term Guerrilla.3 Guerrilla Marketing.3.1 Guerrilla Marketing Benefits.3.2 Guerrilla Marketing Principles.3.3 Non-traditional Guerrilla Advertising Methods.3.4 Word-of-mouth Communication.4 SME (Small and Medium-sized Enterprise).5 Guerrilla Marketing Relevance to SMEs. He pointed out that the difference between small and large firms are basically: - Small businesses have greater external uncertainties concerning the environment and greater internal consistencies of its motivations and actions ; - Small firm have a bigger role. This marketing method has increased in popularity with the rise of ubiquitous mobile and connected technologies that can amplify messaging and focus on target groups of consumers. 2.4 SME (Small and Medium-sized Enterprise) Storey (1994) argues that there is no uniform definition of a small firm because the heterogeneity of the market complicates an evaluation. The second part focuses on the conduction of the survey which has been carried out in order to underline this research with qualitative and quantitative findings. The low-cost communication effort is one of the major issues for guerrilla marketers.
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In addition, long-term business relations and customer loyalty instead of short-term contract conclusions, should be the basis for a substantiate guerrilla B2C organisation. This unconventional form of promotion was applied to places of high traffic,.g. It melted faster than expected, covering the park in sticky goo requiring the fire department to come to hose it down. Especially small organisations in the business world, compared as guerrilla units, draw parallels to modern marketing activities by using the intelligence of guerrilla warfare. To assure a quick response on market chances, the percentage of personnel must kept marginally. Guerrilla marketing is different than traditional marketing in that it often relies on personal interaction, has a smaller budget, and focuses on smaller groups of promoters that are responsible for getting the word out in a particular location rather than through widespread media campaigns. These methods are often low- or no-cost and involve the widespread use of more personal interactions or through viral social media messaging.
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2.3.1 Guerrilla Marketing Benefits Guerrilla marketing, according to Levinson (1984) achieves benefits because of the small-scale nature regarding SMEs and furthermore, guerrilla marketing tools can be relatively quick and flexible implemented to react and respond to market changes. Figure 3: Guerrilla Marketing by Saatchi Saatchi. It is not simply to sell products to the consumer; it is more about a battle of ideas to win customers hearts and minds (m). Competition and market share are rather secondary objectives. Guerrilla marketing strategies are legal attacks targeted on the competitors, focusing on small market segments,.g. Table of Contents, abstract, table of Contents, table of figures. Guerrilla marketing can be very cost-effective for small businesses, especially so if they manage to create a viral marketing phenomenon. The relevance for an SME to interact strategically online, by using guerrilla strategies combined with a selection of guerrilla campaign examples, concludes the literature review for this dissertation. The guerrilla marketing strategy focuses on opinion leaders or gatekeeper which may have a strong influence on the target group.
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Secondly, small enterprises shall concentrate on linking business relationships and cooperate with other valuable businesses, to increase recommendation and recognition. The offensive marketing warfare strategy is used when businesses are focusing on the leader in the market. Some examples include: Guerrilla Marketing Mistakes, with the risks inherent to guerrilla marketing, and the sometimes uncharted territory it travels in, there are a number of examples of campaigns gone awry. The velocity and surprise effects of guerrilla marketing can boost awareness and interest to the customer. This promotion was focused on advertising FedExs new online office product store. Selected areas were identified to get peoples awareness to that problem in 2005. 2.3.4 Word-of-mouth Communication In a study by Pickton and Broderick (2001) the literally meaning of word-of-mouth communications are the conversations held between the receivers, whether or not all members received the original marketing communication (p.738). These main principles are directions in which organisations can operate by executing their aggressive or defensive types of marketing tools.
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Figure 4: SME Threshold, figure 5: Blair Witch Project, figure 6: Gossard. The applied marketing activities shall be innovative by using new technology to create a multiplier effect,.g. This strategic decision, mostly executed by small organisation with a limited resource arsenal, tries to gain customer awareness and to improve the business image. Precise analysis of the targeted audience and niche market. Connection to the emotions of a consumer is key to guerrilla marketing. Marketing warfare strategies are according to Ries and Trout (1986) strategies that try to draw parallels to marketing and warfare; focusing on analogies between military strategies and marketing strategies, in todays business situations. Offensive tactics are concerned with attacking the weaknesses of the leader as effective as possible,.g. Guerrilla Marketing History, guerrilla marketing is a product of the shift to electronic media from traditional print, radio, and television marketing. Segmentations can be conducted via product differentiation concerning target audiences or branch.
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Thus, marketing campaigns have to become profitable for an enterprise. The strategy is created to obtain objectives like market share or key customer from the targeted competitor. 2.3.3 Non-traditional Guerrilla Advertising Methods Non-traditional or unconventional advertising methods according to Levinson (1995) are promotional tools, which can widely influence small business recognition or public interest. An investigation of Ries and Trout (1986) concluded four main principles of marketing warfare strategies: - The defensive marketing warfare strategy is focused on businesses which have already achieved a market leader position. In the following, literature review introduces guerrilla marketing as a metaphor of warfare.
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They point out three major approaches for a successful guerrilla marketing: - SMEs have to identify the market and find a market segment that is small enough to defend ; a niche market is a good basic position for. Implications of Findings and Analysis. Marketing, seen as a metaphor of war, opens up new way of thinking about marketing and market research. The use of this tactic is not designed for all types of goods and services, and it is often used for more "edgy" products and to target younger consumers who are more likely to respond positively. What Is Guerrilla Marketing?
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The next paragraph is focused on the strategies of guerrilla marketing and their literally definition. Guerrilla marketing stands for focusing on conventional goals such as profit or growth, but doing it by using exceptional promotional approaches, like advertising in yellow pages, wild postings or non-traditional outdoor advertising media vehicles. Figure 2: Guerrilla Marketing by Giovanni FCB Agency. Another definition and principles of guerrilla marketing according to Levinson (1984 Achieving conventional goals, such as profits and joy, with unconventional methods, such as investing energy instead of money (p.87). Lower prices or increase product quality. Guerrilla Marketing Types, there are several kinds of guerrilla marketing.
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The organisation, which is in the defending position, has to defend all of their barriers (markets therefore, an attacking business can concentrate their power at a simple place (product or niche market). Figure 1: Guerrilla Marketing for FedEx illustration not visible in this excerpt bbdo New York launched a guerrilla marketing campaign for FedEx in January 2006. 2.3.2 Guerrilla Marketing Principles In a study by Levinson (1984, 1995 Levine (2002 Ries and Trout (1986) main guerrilla marketing principles were investigated as tactics, which deliver results caused by creativity and unconventionality. Methodology.1 The Research Process.2 Problem Definition.3 Research Design.3.1 Survey.3.2 Self-administered Questionnaire.3.3 Internet Questionnaire.3.4 Question Design.3.5 Critique.4 Sampling Unit.5 Data Collection.6 Data Analysis.7 Limitations of Methodology. Another low-cost advertising method with a vast effect can be the word-of-mouth communication. The next paragraph is concerned with the term SME (small and medium-sized enterprise followed by an analysis of the relevance to apply guerrilla marketing strategies.